July 19, 2024

Jewish Liturgical Readings: 2017–2018 Jewish Year 5778

Source https://etz-hayim.com/lectionary/jewish-liturgical-readings.php?q=5778
Source

The Jewish Liturgical Calendar
Jewish Year, Beginning Rosh HaShanah 5778 [Civil Year 2017–2018]

Date Event Torah Maftir Haftarah 1 Tishrei
21st September 2017 Rosh HaShanah I, 5778
ראש השנה Gen. 21:1-34

maf. Num. 29:1-6

1 Sam. 1:1–2:10 2 Tishrei
22nd September 2017 Rosh HaShanah II
ראש השנה Gen. 22:1-24

maf. Num. 29:1-6

Jer. 31:1-19 3 Tishrei
23rd September 2017 Parashat Ha’azinu
[Sabbath of Repentance,
Sabbath of Return]
Shabbat Shuva
פרשת האזינו, שבת שובה Deut. 32:1-52

Hos. 14:2-10, Mic. 7:18-20, Joel 2:15-27

4 Tishrei
24th September 2017 Tzom Gedaliah
[Fast of Gedaliah]

יום גדליהFast Day

Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [am & pm]

Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]


[No Haftarah for Sephardim]


9 Tishrei
29th September 2017 erev Yom Kippur
ערב יום הכיפור 10 Tishrei
30th September 2017 Yom Kippur
[Day of Atonement]
יום הכיפור, יום הכיפורים‎

Lev. 16:1-34 [am]


Lev. 18:1-30 [pm]

maf. Num. 29:7-11

Isa. 57:14–58:14 [am]


Book of Jonah


Micah 7:18-20 [pm]

14 Tishrei
4th October 2017 Erev Sukkot
ערב סוכות 15 Tishrei
5th October 2017 Sukkot I
סוכות א׳ Lev. 22:26–23:44

maf. Num. 29:12-16

Zech. 14:1-21 16 Tishrei
6th October 2017 Sukkot II

סוכות ב׳

Sukkot is celebrated over seven days [Eight in the Diaspora.] The first two days of Sukkot are a major holidays [Yom Tov] in the Diaspora and are followed by the Festival “weekdays” called Chol HaMoed. In Israel the Chol HaMoed begin on Sukkot Day II.

Lev. 22:26–23:44

maf. Num. 29:12-16

1 Kgs. 8:2-21 17 Tishrei
7th October 2017 Sukkot Shabbat
[Chol HaMoed I]
סוכות שבת חל המועד Ex. 33:12–34:26

maf. Num. 29:17-22

Ezek. 38:18–39:16 18 Tishrei
8th October 2017 Sukkot IV
[Chol HaMoed II]
סוכות ד׳, חל המועד ב׳ Num. 29:20-28 19 Tishrei
9th October 2017 Sukkot V
[Chol HaMoed III]
סוכות ה׳, חל המועד ג׳ Num. 29:23-31 20 Tishrei
10th October 2017 Sukkot VI
[Chol HaMoed IV]
סוכות ו׳, חל המועד ד׳ Num. 29:26-34 21 Tishrei
11th October 2017 Sukkot VII
[Hoshanah Rabbah]
סוכות ז׳ הושנא רבה Num. 29:26-34 22 Tishrei
12th October 2017 Shemini Atzeret
שמיני עצרת Deut. 14:22–16:17

maf. Num. 29:35–30:1

1 Kgs. 8:54-66 22 Tishrei
12th October 2017 erev Simhat Torah

ערב שמחת תורה

In most Jewish communities the Torah is read at night on Simhat Torah. [This is the only time when the Torah is read at night.] There are various customs regarding which Torah sections are read, although many select Vezot Haberachah, the last weekly portion on the Torah, omitting the last verses.

Deut. 33:1-17


[or 33:1-26]


Customs may vary.

23 Tishrei
13th October 2017 Simhat Torah
[Rejoicing in the Torah]

שמחת תורה

Simchat Torah is a celebration marking the conclusion of the annual cycle of public Torah readings and the beginning of a new cycle. In Israel, Simhat Torah and Shemini Atzeret are celebrated on the same day.

Deut. 33:1–34:12


Gen. 1:1–2:3

maf. Num. 29:35–30:1

Josh. 1:1-18


[Josh. 1:1-9]

24 Tishrei
14th October 2017 Parashat Bereshit
פרשת בראשית Gen. 1:1–6:8

Isa. 42:5–43:10


[Isa. 42:5-21]

30 Tishrei
20th October 2017 Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan
ראש חודש חשון Num. 28:1-15 1 Cheshvan
21st October 2017 Parashat Noach
Rosh Chodesh Cheshvan
פרשת נח Gen. 6:9–11:32

maf. Num. 28:9-15

Isa. 66:1-24 8 Cheshvan
28th October 2017 Parashat Lekh Lekha
פרשת לך-לך Gen. 12:1–17:27 Isa. 40:27–41:16 15 Cheshvan
4th November 2017 Parashat Vayera
פרשת וירא Gen. 18:1–22:24

2 Kgs. 4:1-37


[2 Kgs. 4:1-23]

22 Cheshvan
11th November 2017 Parashat Chayei Sarah
פרשת חיי שרה Gen. 23:1–25:18

1 Kgs. 1:1-31

29 Cheshvan
18th November 2017 Parashat Toledot
Shabbat Machar Chodesh

פרשת תולדות, שבת מחר חודש

[Sabbath before Rosh Chodesh]

Gen. 25:19–28:9 1 Sam. 20:18-42 1 Kislev
19th November 2017 Rosh Chodesh Kislev
ראש חודש כסלו Num. 28:1-15 7 Kislev
25th November 2017 Parashat Vayetze
פרשת ויצא Gen. 28:10–32:3

Hos. 12:13–14:10


Opt. subst. Mic. 7:18


[Hos. 11:7–12:12]

14 Kislev
2nd December 2017 Parashat Vayishlach
פרשת וישלח Gen. 32:4–36:43

Obad. 1:1-21


Opt. Hos. 11:7–12:12


[Obad. 1:1-21]

21 Kislev
9th December 2017 Parashat Vayeshev
פרשת וישב Gen. 37:1–40:23 Amos 2:6–3:8 24 Kislev
12th December 2017 Erev Chanukah
חנוכה ערב 25 Kislev
13th December 2017 Chanukah I
חנוכה א׳ Num. 7:1-17 26 Kislev
14th December 2017 Chanukah II
חנוכה ב׳ Num. 7:18-29 27 Kislev
15th December 2017 Chanukah III
חנוכה ג׳ Num. 7:24-35 28 Kislev
16th December 2017 Parashat Miketz
Shabbat Chanukah IV
פרשת מקץ חנוכה

Gen. 41:1–44:17

maf. Num. 7:30-35

Zech. 2:14–4:7 29 Kislev
17th December 2017 Chanukah V
חנוכה ה׳ Num. 7:36-47 30 Kislev
18th December 2017 Chanukah VI
Rosh Chodesh Tevet
חנוכה ו׳, ראש חודש טבת

Num. 28:1-15

maf. Num. 7:42-47

1 Tevet
19th December 2017 Chanukah VII
Rosh Chodesh Tevet
חנוכה ז׳, ראש חודש טבת

Num. 28:1-15

maf. Num. 7:48-53

2 Tevet
20th December 2017 Chanukah VIII
חנוכה ט׳ Num. 7:54–8:4 5 Tevet
23rd December 2017 Parashat Vayigash
פרשת ויגש Gen. 44:18–47:27 Ezek. 37:15-28 10 Tevet
28th December 2017 Asara B’Tevet
[The Tenth of Tevet]

עשרה בטבת‎

[Minor Fast Day]

Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10

Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]


[No haftarah for Sephardim]

12 Tevet
30th December 2017 Parashat Vayechi
פרשת ויחי Gen. 47:28–50:26 1 Kgs. 2:1-12 19 Tevet
6th January 2018 Parashat Shemot
פרשת שמות Ex. 1:1–6:1

Isa. 27:6–28:13; 29:22-23


[Jer. 1:1–2:3]

26 Tevet
13th January 2018 Parashat Vaera
פרשת וארא Ex. 6:2–9:35 Ezek. 28:25–29:21 1 Shevat
17th January 2018 Rosh Chodesh Shevat
ראש חודש שבט Num. 28:1-15 4 Shevat
20th January 2018 Parashat Bo
פרשת בא Ex. 10:1–13:16 Jer. 46:13-28 11 Shevat
27th January 2018 Parashat Beshalach
פרשת בשלח Ex. 13:17–17:16

Judg. 4:4–5:31


[Judg. 5:1-31]

15 Shevat
31st January 2018 Tu B’Shvat
[The Fifteenth of Sh’vat]
New Year for Trees

ט״ו בשבט‎; ראש השנה לאילנות

[Minor Jewish Holiday]

18 Shevat
3rd February 2018 Parashat Yitro
פרשת יתרו Ex. 18:1–20:23

Isa. 6:1–7:6; 9:5-6


[Isa. 6:1-13]

25 Shevat
10th February 2018 Parashat Mishpatim
Shabbat Shekalim
פרשת משפטים, שבת שקלים

Ex. 21:1–24:18

maf. Ex. 30:11-16

2 Kgs. 12:1-17


[2 Kgs. 11:17–12:17]

30 Shevat
15th February 2018 Rosh Chodesh Adar
ראש חודש אדר Num. 28:1-15 1 Adar
16th February 2018 Rosh Chodesh Adar

ראש חודש אדר[When a Hebrew month has 30 days Rosh Chodesh is traditionally celebrated over two days — the 30th of the old month and 1st of the new month.]

Num. 28:1-15 2 Adar
17th February 2018 Parashat Terumah
פרשת תרומה Ex. 25:1–27:19 1 Kgs. 5:26–6:13 9 Adar
24th February 2018 Parashat Tetzaveh
Shabbat Zachor
פרשת תצוה, שבת זכור

Ex. 27:20–30:10

maf. Deut. 25:17-19

1 Sam. 15:2-34


[1 Sam. 15:1-34]

13 Adar
28th February 2018 Ta’anit Esther
[Fast of Esther]
erev Purim

תענית אסתר

[Minor Fast Day]

Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [am & pm]

Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]


[No Haftarah for Sephardim]

14 Adar
1st March 2018 Purim
פורים Ex. 17:8-16 15 Adar
2nd March 2018 Shushan Purim

שושן פורים

Shushan Purim is celebrated in Jerusalem and walled cities.

16 Adar
3rd March 2018 Parashat Ki Tisa
פרשת כי תשא Ex. 30:11–34:35

1 Kgs. 18:1-39


[1 Kgs. 18:20-39]

23 Adar
10th March 2018 Parashat Vayakhel–Pekudei
Shabbat Parah
פרשת ויקהל-פקודי, שבת פרה

Ex. 35:1–40:38

maf. Num. 19:1-22

Ezek. 36:16-38


[Ezek. 36:16-36]

1 Nisan
17th March 2018 Parashat Vayikra
Shabbat HaChodesh
Rosh Chodesh Nisan
פרשת ויקרא, שבת החודש

Lev. 1:1–5:26


Num. 28:9-15

maf. Ex. 12:1-20

Ezek. 45:16–46:18


[Ezek. 45:18–46:15]

8 Nisan
24th March 2018 Parashat Tzav
Shabbat HaGadol
פרשת צו, שבת הגדול Lev. 6:1–8:36 Mal. 3:4–24 14 Nisan
30th March 2018 Ta’anit Bechorot
[Fast of the Firstborn]
erev Pesach

תענית בכורות‎ ,תענית בכוריםFast Day [for the Firstborn]

Ex. 32:11–34:10

15 Nisan
31st March 2018 Pesach I Shabbat
פסח שבת

Ex. 12:21-51

maf. Num. 28:16-25

Josh. 3:5-7; 5:2–6:1, 27


[Josh. 5:2–6:1, 27]

16 Nisan
1st April 2018 Pesach II
פסח ב׳

Lev. 22:26–23, 44

maf. Num. 28:16-25

2 Kgs. 23:1-9, 21-25 17 Nisan
2nd April 2018 Pesach III
[Chol HaMoed I]
פסח ג׳, חל המועד א׳

Ex. 13:1-16

maf. Num. 28:19-25

18 Nisan
3rd April 2018 Pesach IV
[Chol HaMoed II]
פסח ד׳, חל המועד ב׳

Ex. 22:24–23:19

maf. Num. 28:19-25

19 Nisan
4th April 2018 Pesach V
[Chol HaMoed III]
פסח ה׳, חל המועד ג׳

Ex. 34:1-26

maf. Num. 28:19-25

20 Nisan
5th April 2018 Pesach VI
[Chol HaMoed IV]
פסח ו׳, חל המועד ד׳

Num. 9:1-14

maf. Num. 28:19-25

21 Nisan
6th April 2018 Pesach VII
פסח ז׳

Ex. 13:17–15:26

maf. Num. 28:19-25

2 Sam. 22:1-51 22 Nisan
7th April 2018 Pesach VIII Shabbat
פסח ח׳, שבת

Deut. 14:22–16:17

maf. Num. 28:19-25

Isa. 10:32–12:6 27 Nisan
12th April 2018 Yom HaShoah
[Holocaust and Heroism Remembrance Day]

יום השואה, יום הזיכרון לשואה ולגבורה[Yom HaShoah is normally observed on 27th Nisan unless that day falls adjacent to Shabbat, in which case the observance is shifted by one day.]

29 Nisan
14th April 2018 Parashat Shemini
Shabbat Machar Chodesh

פרשת שמיני, שבת מחר חודש

[Sabbath before Rosh Chodesh]

Lev. 9:1–11:47 1 Sam. 20:18-42 30 Nisan
15th April 2018 Rosh Chodesh Iyar
ראש חודש אייר Num. 28:1-15 1 Iyar
16th April 2018 Rosh Chodesh Iyar

ראש חודש אייר[When a Hebrew month has 30 days Rosh Chodesh is traditionally celebrated over two days — the 30th of the old month and 1st of the new month.]

Num. 28:1-15 3 Iyar
18th April 2018 Yom HaZikaron
[Israeli Remembrance Day]

יום הזיכרון, יום הזיכרון לחללי מערכות ישראל ולנפגעי פעולות האיבה‎

[Israeli Fallen Soldiers and Victims of Terrorism Remembrance Day]

4 Iyar
19th April 2018 Yom Ha’Atzmaut
[Israel Independence Day]
יום העצמאות‎

Deut. 7:12–8:18

Isa. 10:32–12:6

6 Iyar
21st April 2018 Parashat Tazria-Metzorah
פרשת תזריע-מצרע Lev. 12:1–15:33 2 Kgs. 7:3-20 13 Iyar
28th April 2018 Parashat Aharei Mot-Kedoshim
פרשת אחרי מות-קדשים Lev. 16:1–20:27

Amos 9:7-15


[Ezek. 20:2-20]

14 Iyar
29th April 2018 Pesach Sheini

פסח שני

Pesach Sheini is a special celebration of Passover which is celebrated exactly one month after Passover. Its historical purpose was to allow those who for special reason where not able to bring the Passover sacrifice on the correct date to have a second opportunity to do so. The celebration is mentioned in the Torah (Num. 9:1-14).

18 Iyar
3rd May 2018 Lag Ba’Omer
[33rd Day in the Omer]

ל״ג בעומר

Lag B’Omer or Lag L’Omer is a holiday marking the 33rd day of the Counting of the Omer and falls on the 18th day of Iyar.

20 Iyar
5th May 2018 Parashat Emor
פרשת אמור Lev. 21:1–24:23 Ezek. 44:15-31 27 Iyar
12th May 2018 Parashat Behar-Behukotai
פרשת בהר-בחקתי Lev. 25:1–27:34

Jer. 16:19–17:14

28 Iyar
13th May 2018 Yom Yerushalayim
[Jerusalem Day]
יום ירושלים‎ 1 Sivan
15th May 2018 Rosh Chodesh Sivan
ראש חודש סיון Num. 28:1-15 5 Sivan
19th May 2018 Parashat Bamidbar
erev Shavuot
פרשת במדבר Num. 1:1–4:20 Hos. 2:1-22 6 Sivan
20th May 2018 Shavuot I
שבועות

Ex. 19:1–20:23

maf. Num. 28:26-31

Ezek. 1:1-28; 3:12 7 Sivan
21st May 2018 Shavuot II
שבועות

Deut. 15:19–16:17

maf. Num. 28:26-31

Hab. 3:1-19


[Hab. 2:20–3:19]

12 Sivan
26th May 2018 Parashat Naso
פרשת נשא Num. 4:21–7:89 Judg. 13:2-25 19 Sivan
2nd June 2018 Parashat Beha’alotkha
פרשת בהעלתך Num. 8:1–12:16

Zech. 2:14–4:7

26 Sivan
9th June 2018 Parashat Shelach Lekha
פרשת שלח־לך Num. 13:1–15:41 Josh. 2:1-24 30 Sivan
13th June 2018 Rosh Chodesh Tammuz
ראש חודש תמוז Num. 28:1-28 1 Tammuz
14th June 2018 Rosh Chodesh Tammuz

ראש חודש תמוז[When a Hebrew month has 30 days Rosh Chodesh is traditionally celebrated over two days — the 30th of the old month and 1st of the new month.]

Num. 28:1-28 3 Tammuz
16th June 2018 Parashat Korach
פרשת קורח Num. 16:1–18:32 1 Sam. 11:14–12:22 10 Tammuz
23rd June 2018 Parashat Chukat
פרשת חקת Num. 19:1–22:1 Judg. 11:1-33 17 Tammuz
30th June 2018 Parashat Balak
פרשת בלק Num. 22:2–25:9 Micah 5:6–6:8 18 Tammuz
1st July 2018 Tzom Tammuz
[17th Tammuz – Shiv’ah Asar b’Tammuz]

צום תמוז, שבעה עשר בתמוז‎

[Minor Fast Day]

Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [am & pm]

Isa. 55:6–56:8 [pm]


[No Haftarah for Sephardim]

24 Tammuz
7th July 2018 Parashat Pinchas
1st Haftarah Admonition
פרשת פינחס Num. 25:10–30:1

1st Haftarah of Admonition


Jer. 1:1–2:3

1 Av
13th July 2018 Rosh Chodesh Av
ראש חודש אב Num. 28:1-15 2 Av
14th July 2018 Parashat Matot–Masei
2nd Haftarah Admonition
פרשת מטות-מסעי Num. 30:2–36:13

2nd Haftarah of Admonition


Jer. 2:4-28; 3:4


[Jer. 2:4-28; 4:1-2]

9 Av
21st July 2018 Parashat Devarim
[Sabbath of Vision]
Shabbat Chazon
3rd Haftarah Admonition
פרשת דברים, שבת חזון Deut. 1:1–3:22

3rd Haftarah of Admonition


Isa. 1:1-27

9 Av
21st July 2018 erev Tisha B’Av
תשעה באב

The Book of Lamentations


[The Book of Job may be read also.]

10 Av
22nd July 2018 Tisha B’Av
[The Ninth of Av]

ט׳ באב, תשעה באב‎

[Fast Day]

Deut. 4:25-40 [am]


Ex. 32:11-14; 34:1-10 [pm]

Jer. 8:13–9:23 [am]


Isa. 55:6-56:8 [pm]


[Hos. 14:2-10; Micah 7:18-20]

15 Av
27th July 2018 Tu B’Av
[The Fifteenth of Av]

ט”ו באב

[Minor Jewish Holiday]

16 Av
28th July 2018 Parashat Va’etchanan
Shabbat Nachamu
1st Haftarah Consolation
פרשת ואתחנן, שבת נחמו Deut. 3:23–7:11

1st Haftarah of Consolation


Isa. 40:1-26

23 Av
4th August 2018 Parashat Ekev
2nd Haftarah Consolation
פרשת עקב Deut. 7:12–11:25

2nd Haftarah of Consolation


Isa. 49:14–51:3

30 Av
11th August 2018 Parashat Re’eh
Shabbat Rosh Chodesh

3rd Haftarah Consolation
Rosh Chodesh Elul
פרשת ראה, ראש חודש

Deut. 11:26–16:17

maf. Num. 28:9-15

3rd Haftarah of Consolation


Isa. 54:11–55:5


[In some congregations,


Isa. 66:1-24]

1 Elul
12th August 2018 Rosh Chodesh Elul

ראש חודש אלול[When a Hebrew month has 30 days Rosh Chodesh is traditionally celebrated over two days — the 30th of the old month and 1st of the new month.]

In the Sephardic tradition, recital of Selichot in preparation for the High Holidays begins on the second day of the Hebrew month of Elul.


In the Ashkenazic tradition, Selichot begin on the Saturday night before Rosh Hashanah.

Num. 28:1-15 7 Elul
18th August 2018 Parashat Shofetim
4th Haftarah Consolation
פרשת שופטים Deut. 16:18–21:9

4th Haftarah of Consolation


Isa. 51:12–52:12

14 Elul
25th August 2018 Parashat Ki Tetze
5th Haftarah Consolation
פרשת כי-תצא Deut. 21:10–25:19

5th Haftarah of Consolation


Isa. 54:1-10

21 Elul
1st September 2018 Parashat Ki Tavo
6th Haftarah Consolation
Shabbat Selichot [Ashkenazim]
פרשת כי-תבוא Deut. 26:1–29:8

6th Haftarah of Consolation


Isa. 60:1-22

28 Elul
8th September 2018 Parashat Nitzavim
7th Haftarah Consolation
פרשת נצבים Deut. 29:9–30:20

7th Haftarah of Consolation


Isa. 61:10–63:9

29 Elul
9th September 2018 Erev Rosh HaShanah
ערב ראש השנה

[TOP]

A brief explanation of the Jewish cycle of readings

The Parashat Hashavuah—The Portion of the Week
The Jewish yearly cycle of Torah readings is divided into weekly portions. Each portion—in Hebrew, a parashah—is part of a sequential reading of the Torah [aka. The Five Books of Moses, The Chumash, or the Pentateuch] so that the whole of the Torah is read within a yearly cycle.
[Some Jewish communities follow a Triennial Torah reading cycle.1]

In the table above the Parashat Hashavuah is listed with its accompanying Haftarah reading. The name of the parashah [portion] is taken from the first words of the parashah. There are 54 weekly portions—one for each year of the Jewish leap year. In non-leap years [50 weeks] portions are paired and read together.

The table above, beginning with Rosh Hashanah—the first day of the Jewish year—follows the Ashkenazic tradition for Torah and Haftarah readings and completes the entire reading cycle within one year. Communities who read the Parashat Hashavuah over three years will read a section from each parashah each week.

The Haftarah
The haftarah is a reading from the Prophets and adds a reflection to the parashah. While each parashah normally has its own accompanying haftarah reading, the haftarah reading also varies, during the year, according to special festivals or events. The word haftarah comes from the Hebrew root pey.tet.resh, meaning “concluding”, “parting” or “ending.”

The practice of adding a haftarah reading to the Torah portion is ancient and has obscure origins. The Talmud mentions the haftarah being read in the presence of Rabbi Eliezer ben Hyrcanus (c. 70 CE) and evidence from the New Testament indicates that the haftarah readings were a common practice. Acts 13:15 states, “After the reading from the Law and the Prophets the leaders of the synagogue sent word to them saying…”

Haftarah readings given in brackets in the above table indicate readings used in the Shephardic tradition where these differ from the Ashkenazic reading.

The Maftir
The word maftir, which belongs to the same Hebrew root as haftarah [pey.tet.resh] means “concluder” and refers to the last person called [i.e., the last Aliyah (aliyah, “to go up”)] to the Torah of the succession of readers at a Sabbath morning or holiday service. This person normally reads the haftarah. The maftir reading normally repeats the last words of the parashat hashavuah. This is according to an ancient custom which sort to honor the greater importance of the Torah over the Prophetic reading (Talmud, Megillah 23a). On special Sabbaths and holidays a special reading is added [provided in the table above] which is related to the celebration or event.

A Point of interest: The division of parashot [sometimes spelled and pronounced, Parshiot or Parshiyot: the plural of parashah] found in the modern-day Torah scrolls of all Jewish communities (Ashkenazic, Sephardic, and Yemenite) is based upon the systematic list provided by Maimonides in Mishneh Torah, Laws of Tefillin, Mezuzah and Torah Scrolls, Ch. 8. Maimonides based his division of the portions of the Torah on the Aleppo Codex.

1. The Triennial Torah Reading Cycle. In some traditions the cycle of Torah readings is completed over three years—this pattern is modelled on an ancient Rabbinic tradition in Israel [which may in fact be even older] in which each portion was divided into three parts, each part being read in sequence over the course of three years thus completing the reading of the five books of the Torah over three years. This practice has been revived in some Jewish congregations today.

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