March 2, 2024
Surviving the 1946 Kielce Pogrom | Polish Holocaust Survivor Esther Montag | USC Shoah Foundation

Surviving the 1946 Kielce Pogrom | Polish Holocaust Survivor Esther Montag | USC Shoah Foundation

Surviving the 1946 Kielce Pogrom | Polish Holocaust Survivor Esther Montag | USC Shoah Foundation

Author: USC Shoah Foundation via YouTube
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Surviving the 1946 Kielce Pogrom | Polish Holocaust Survivor Esther Montag | USC Shoah Foundation

Esther Montag was born in Kielce, Poland in 1929. Esther survived the Kielce and Theresienstadt ghettos, and the Auschwitz, Bergen-Belsen, Bomlitz, Elsnig, and Pionki concentration camps.

Esther endured forced labor in the camps, making bombs, ammunition, and other weapons for the Nazis.

When Soviet armed forces began approaching the Bomlitz concentration camp, Esther and her mother were aimlessly transported for a week by cattle car, where many fellow prisoners died from hunger and bomb attacks.

Esther and her mother both survived the Holocaust. Esther’s father was killed in Auschwitz.

On July 4, 1946 (one year after the Holocaust ended), Polish Jewish Holocaust survivors were violently attacked by a mob of non-Jewish Poles in Kielce. 42 Jews were killed, and more than 40 were wounded. This massacre is considered the deadliest attack against Polish Jews after World War II.

In this clip from her 1996 testimony, Esther recalls the massacre, referred to today as the Kielce Pogrom.

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